Ethical Theories

Introduction Over the years, a number of ethical theories have been utilized to analyze human behavior. These include consequentialism, Aristotelian and deontological approaches as well as Utilitarianism, Kantianism and Virtue theory. Ethical issues, such as abortion, capital punishment and animal rights, among others, have raised debates on how to address and approach them.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Moral Controversies of Abortion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While some people have gone for Utilitarianism, others have gone for moral theory in dealing with these issues. On the other hand, others have chosen to stick to Kantianism. According to Mill’s Utilitarianism, an action is considered right if it brings about happiness or results in the consequences that are considered best. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of Kantianism, an action can only be considered right in cases where it agrees w ith the moral principles. Moreover, the moral theory can only be considered right in cases where a virtuous agent also takes a similar action. This paper will consider the case of abortion and relate it to two ethical theories namely, Utilitarianism and Virtue theory (Arthur and Scalet 112). Abortion Abortion is a medical procedure that is done on pregnant women with a purpose its (the pregnancy) safe ending. According to statistics, over 40% of women are believed to abort once or more in their lives. This is quite surprising given the huge ethical debate that surrounds this procedure. Moreover, it has been found that abortion is done by women irrespective of their races or social classes. However, it is also important to note that the women who are most likely to undertake an abortion are over the age of 40, the young, the poor, and the unmarried. In the United States alone, an annual record of abortion cases comes nearly to 1.2 million. It was legalized in the country after the fa mous ruling Roe vs. Wade by the Supreme Court in 1973. However, in other parts of the world, this case has been received with skepticism. This is especially true in Africa and the Middle East, where religious influence is still considered strong. However, most Western and Asian countries have embraced it. In fact, it is believed that between 20 and 30 million legal abortions are performed annually (Abortion par. 1). Moreover, the statistics also shows that there are between 10 and 20 million illegal abortions per year (Abortion par. 1).Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let’s see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This reflects how crucial this topic is in ethical perspective. The medical standpoint attracts the public attention to the complications caused by illegal abortions. This is mainly because of the rising number of deaths due to unlawful procedures. It has also been noted with great concern that a lot of women die due to the poor quality and performance of illegal abortions. This is quite crucial as compared to few cases in Western countries where legal abortion are allowed. This raises the question whether the other countries in which illegal abortions have led to serious complications should legalize it to save lives or they need not to do it. In addition, ethical theories have also been applied to try to resolve the issue to no avail (Trupin 1). Utilitarianism One of the ethical theories mentioned above is utilitarian standpoint. This theory considers an action valid or right if it results in the best consequences. In essence, it focuses mainly on the results of an action. That is why, the consequences of actions are implied before making a decision on something. Utilitarianism is, therefore, focused on maximizing overall happiness and satisfaction. It looks for the best consequences of actions. In essence, Utilitarian view point uses means-ends as its model of reasoning. The individual, therefore, works to get what he/she wants for the main object of evaluation as a consequence. It is also important to note that the end result is considered good if it enhances one’s life. Furthermore, it ensures that a person maximizes utility to achieve better results. Therefore, Utilitarian viewpoint searches for the actions that promote happiness to the highest number of people. In this regard, it can be considered as an act preferred by the majority. Therefore, if what brings happiness is wrong, they will go for happiness. In this case, the course of action does not matter. Instead, the result matters. Measuring happiness is quite difficult. This is mainly because people are unique and react differently in different situations (Arthur and Scalet 114). Virtue theory The next ethical theory is Virtue ethics. This theory is based on Aristotle’s moral ethics, which focuses on virtuous agent’s course of action at any given circumstance. In essence, it considers one’ s action based on another, considered as virtuous. In this regard, a virtuous agent is taken as the one that acts virtuously in every decision. That is a person that exercises the virtues which human beings hold dear. Virtues that are valued touch upon love, care and the right to life for everyone, among others. People love to see character’s traits that flourish in virtuous acts.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Moral Controversies of Abortion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, every action is compared to virtues. It takes into account the kind of habits one should develop as a model of reasoning. Moreover, it tries to determine the desires which such reasoning model considers best. In this regard, one does his/her best to become a better person. Moreover, this can only be done by comparing one’s habits to that of another individual considered virtuous. Therefore, actions are only con sidered right if a virtuous agent considers them such in the given circumstances (Arthur and Scalet 115). Relation of abortion to Utilitarianism As it has been stated above, Utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of an action. That is why, if the end results bring happiness to the majority, then that action is considered right and best. Abortion has brought about huge debates worldwide. This is mainly because religious influence has taken center stage on the matter. However, it is important to note that Utilitarian viewpoint has prevailed over religious one in most Western cultures. Most women prefer abortion if pregnancy is unwanted. These affect mostly teenagers, old women as well as poor and unmarried ones. Considering teenager’s situation, her main goal is to study and get an appropriate education to achieve progress and happiness in life. In this case, having a baby will not be among her main goals. This means sphere magnet Some people may suggest a ferrite magnets , and while these cost a lot less they are far more brittle and will not last you as long. Many people who I have spoken to, that have tried ferrite, said the magnets smashed or lost power straight away.ues, while King focuses on the historical and political aspects of the film. While the reviews focus on different aspects they also use different techniques to achieve this. Crucie employs a familiar, excited tone, while King uses a more sophisticated style of writing. I remember many classics in high school this is the opening line of Crucies review. Immediately he creates a familiar tone by using the personal pronoun, to create trust, and an anecdote. To compare this with Kings opening line, paranoia, betrayal all important ingredients of this powerful film adaptation it is clear that the initial tone created is different. King creates a formal tone. Crucie initiates an excited tone by using exaggeration bordering on hyperbole. The language that Crucie employs is very informal and extensive colloquial language is utilized. This combines with the exaggeration to create a relaxed piece of writing. Kings word choice varies greatly to that of Crucies. King uses a wider variety of language, with a much better vocabulary. This creates a formal sophisticated piece of writing. King uses constant superlatives to create a favorable review of the actors, magnificent job, superb job. King also chooses strong emotive words to express a subtle opinion. This is shown in the description of Abigail, spiteful, vengeful, and achieves the composers objective of positioning the responder. To add to the formal tone, King utilizes the effect of using historical information, which provides a structured review and an acceptable level of formality. King, in addition provides a slight tonal change, where he slowly begins to include his opinion, this is seen with the addition of emotive words. This allows him to position the reader favorably. King also provides commentary on the story, and the characters, again assisting his positioning of the composer. He comments on the stylistic elements, and this reflect the style of the piece, deftly shifts the emphasis away from its stage origins, focusing the attention on the intense confrontations and the rich characters . This technique is also made use of by Crucie. He provides a running commentary on the development of the love story, and the characters, as the love story evolves paranoid village. Again this mirrors the style of the writing. Along with this commentary, contrasting Kings technique is a very strong opinion, designed to openly position the responder. Another technique Crucie employs is contradiction. The following two lines demonstrate this. Serious suspense provides a heart-pounding climax, and For a film desperately relying on the power of its actors, These lines, and the contradiction present highlights the actors abilities, after continues superlatives praising the entertainment value of the film. The two reviews use different techniques to highlight their desired focuses, and to position the reader in their respective favors. CrucieÐ ¢s review uses simpler language, and a less formal style, while King exhibits his sophisticated, formal style in his article. These techniques ec ho the chosen style, and ultimately their choice of aspects focused upon. The two reviews each focus on different aspects and elements of the film. Crucie identifies the love story, and is able to sympathize with the character of Abigail. King on the other hand, foregrounds the parallels between the film and the McCarthy era. King also discusses Abigails motives, and the hidden hero in proctor. Crucie identifies the evil within Abigail, she realizes she has the power to condemn anyone she wants. But then continues and justifies this evil. Of course, the power is an undeniably strong and almost erotic sensation. Crucie seems to almost sympathize with Abigail. He recognizes that her motives and resultant power are enough to justify her actions. Despite acknowledging that Abigail was the ring leader, Crucie does not extend his sympathy to the girls, and their actions. As all the girls know, if you deny witchcraft, you are hanged. Crucies interpretation of Mary Warren is not as one would expect. In the film, Mary risks her life to tell the truth, so one would expect the description of this to be favorable, yet Crucie uses a monotonous tone to describe Marys actions. Finally Crucie is able to recognize the hidden hero in Proctor. His flawed hero as Crucie describes it, is in fact very flawed. Crucie spotlights Proctors flaws, and mistakes continually throughout the review, who once had an affair with her. Similar to crucie, King points out the unlikely hero that is John Proctor. He however does not necessarily flaunt Proctors flaw, as Crucie did. King uses superlatives to commend the character of Proctor, strength and courage, and appears sensitive with his situation. Contrasting to Crucies views on Abigail are Kings comments on Abigail. King recognizes the evil and horrible character, and dismisses the motives. He describes her as spiteful, vengeful, and then recognizes that her corrupt nature is infecting the whole town. Crucie retells the story, adding overtones of his opinions. He comments on the characters and the events unraveling, the rest of the girls know exactly what she is doing. He also highlights the love story, and identifies other plots occurring simultaneously. Crucie enjoys the concept of a love story thoroughly, and identifies elements common with both The Crucible, and a typical love story. Crucie links this with emotive words, which emphasizes the concept of a love story. Combined with this another parallel plot emerges. This parallel plot is linked with following emotive terms, and takes on its own status as almost a second film. Crucie expands of the elements of the film, discussing extensive use of suspense and its effectiveness. Most suspenseful, and serious suspense, are used to describe depicted scenes. Crucie then commends the actors on their terrific depiction of their respective characters. King does this also. King uses superlatives to commend the actors on their brilliant representations of their characters. Rare depth and emotional range. King also discusses the parallels between the film and events occurring in the McCarthy era. He describes these links as being obvious, and unmistakable. King acknowledges that background knowledge is unnecessary in order to appreciate the film, and describes it as a provocative piece of drama. Similarly to Crucie King provides commentary on the plot unfolding. He adopts a tone of mockery when discussing the events of the town. King provides a more objective tone when discussing the social elements of the film, but a great deal of commentary when discussing the characters. Finally, King comments on the changes occurring when adapted for film. He highly praises the changes, deftly shifts the emphasis away from its stage origins, focusing attention on the intense confrontations and the rich characters that propel the dramatic narrative identifies genre, and focusing on the setting, and brilliant shoots. The two reviews have interpreted the film in different ways. This is shown in their different appreciations of the film, its cha racters and elements typical with the genre. Both reviews have similar focuses. They indentify the universal themes, praise the actor, and comment on the plot. However, this is the extent of their harmony. When different people view a text they will interpret it in different ways, depending on their background. To see this difference an analysis of the focuses, techniques and interpretations is used. As the two reviews did in fact focus on different aspects, and utilize different styles and techniques, it can be understood that Bill Crucie and Greg King interpreted the film in different ways. As well as different focuses and techniques, Crucie and King fore grounded different ideas, and aspects. This confirms the notion that different text can be read in different ways.
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